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Christy Matta, M.A.Christy Matta, M.A.
A Blog on Dialectical Behavior Therapy, Mindfulness and Stress Reduction

Investigating the Complicated Emotional Life of Adolescents

Christy Matta, M.A. Updated: Jan 16th 2013

Anyone who has ever been an adolescent knows that time of life is full of emotional turmoil. Adolescence is often a time of intense fear and anxiety, loneliness, guilt, shame, exuberance, anger, infatuation and joy.

sad teen girlAdolescents are commonly understood to experience emotion more intensely than adults and to cycle more quickly through moods in their day-to-day lives. A study in Emotion investigates at what age emotions are most intense in adolescents, how rapidly they change and the influence of coping strategies on how teens respond to their emotions.

The study aims to understand whether older teens, who tend to be less emotionally reactive than younger teens, simply experience less intense emotions than younger teens or whether they experience equally intense emotions but are better at managing them.

Separating out whether a teen is experiencing intense emotion, but coping with it or experiencing emotions that are less intense is a complicated process. In this study, teens were asked to respond to some emotional pictures naturally and others using a coping technique they'd been taught.

Intensity of Emotion Doesn't Change, But Coping Skill Does

Hormonal changes, new experiences with independence and shifting social relationships combine to create an emotional storm for adolescents. And age, according to this study, doesn't lessen the intensity of the emotions triggered by these forces.

However, as adolescents age, most develop mature skills that help them manage the fury of intense emotions. Older adolescents were better able to change how they think about emotional events and to distance themselves from overwhelming emotional situations.

When the researchers taught younger adolescents how to think differently about events to reduce intense emotion, they were able to do so, but not as well as older adolescents. This could be because older adolescents have had more experience coping with emotions or it could be a function of brain maturation. Younger adolescents have less developed prefrontal control regions of the brain. And it is these regions that are typically associated with healthy coping in adults.

Social Situations and Sensitivity Matter

Adolescents tend to be intensely interested in friendships and highly sensitive to social influence and peer rejection. Navigating changing and expanding friendships and evolving social cues and rules is complicated and emotionally fraught at this age.

And for some it's more difficult than for others. Some adolescents tend to be more sensitive to rejection than others. These teens anxiously anticipate and perceive rejection. They are more vulnerable to feelings of rejection and ostracism.

For these more sensitive teens, it is more difficult to learn strategies to cope with painful emotional situations than it is for the average teen, which put them at risk for low self-esteem, relationship violence and trouble functioning with kids their age.

These sensitive teens did tend to make progress developing coping skills as they moved through the teen years and many did not develop social or emotional problems. Early positive social experiences or having different coping skills, such as an ability to delay gratification or exert self-control, may account for these differences.

Whether you're parenting an adolescent, caring for an adolescent or simply are an adolescent it's helpful to better understand what is happening, emotionally, during this tumultuous time.

The results from this study suggest that early adolescence is a critical time in the development of healthy coping skills and that these skills may be particularly important for teens sensitive to rejection.

 

Christy Matta, M.A.

Christy Matta M.A. is a trainer, consultant and writer. She is the author of “The Stress Response: How Dialectical Behavior Therapy Can Free You from Needless Anxiety, Worry, Anger, and Other Symptoms of Stress.” She is intensively trained in DBT and has designed and provided clinical supervision to treatment programs, including a winner of the American Psychiatric Association Gold Award. Matta has a Master of Arts in counseling psychology from Boston College. For more on her consultation and trainings visit her web site www.dbtmind.com. For more tips and mindfulness tips and strategies visit her blog www.christymatta.wordpress.com.

Reader Comments
Discuss this issue below or in our forums.

Response to "Emotional Life of Adolescents" - Marc M - Mar 8th 2015

Ms. Matta, thanks so much for providing your aritcle that, in part, regards emotions of teens and their reactions to them - I appreciate many of your clarifications as I frequently communicate with several teens who've experienced severe stress with their school crowds. Your perspectives have lent some comfort when addressing their issues. Best wishes.

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