Mental Help Net
Anxiety Disorders
Basic Information
What is Anxiety?The Biopsychosocial Model of AnxietyDevelopment & Maintenance of Anxiety DisordersClassification & Diagnosis of Anxiety DisordersAnxiety Disorder Theories and TherapiesTreatment of Anxiety DisordersAnxiety Disorder References & Additonal Resources
More InformationLatest NewsQuestions and AnswersBlog EntriesVideosLinksBook ReviewsSelf-Help Groups
Therapist Search
Find a Therapist:
 (USA/CAN only)

Use our Advanced Search to locate a therapist outside of North America.

Related Topics

Depression: Depression & Related Conditions
Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Disorders
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
Emotional Resilience
View the Depression Primer - an illustrated book about Depression

Allan Schwartz, Ph.D.Allan Schwartz, Ph.D.
Dr. Schwartz's Weblog

It's Called Onychophagia or Nail Biting

Allan Schwartz, LCSW, Ph.D. Updated: Jan 24th 2013

It's Called Onychophagia or Nail BitingAn old friend from our college days would sit in the school library doing homework or studying while biting down on his nails. This was accompanied by his digging into the edges of the nails with his other hand an attempt to pull off the loosened cuticles. If anyone reminded him that he was chewing his nails, he would pause for awhile and then, quite without intention, resume the process. The whole drama was remarkable to me because I had no such wish or impulse to do the same.

Did you ever bite your nails? If the answer is yes you are not alone. Studies show that 60% of children and 45 percent of teens, bite their nails. After age 18 the percentages of people who bite their nails dwindle. However, there are some cases of this continuing during adulthood. So, why does nail biting occur at all?

Nail biting is part of what is referred to as pathological grooming. This is a group of behaviors that include hair pulling, known as trichotillomania, and skin picking, known as dermatillomania. To begin with, these behaviors may be triggered by situations that provoke lots of stress and anxiety. As with my old friend, homework and studying are certainly stressful for most. Exams, term papers and quizzes provoke lots of worry and anxiety. Nail biting becomes a way to relieve stress. Soon, it turns into a habit. Contrary to what some may believe, it is not a habit that disturbs the nail biter. Quite to the contrary, it feels good, which is part of the reason why it's hard to stop.

Some mental health professionals have suggested that nail biting may be a symptom of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) because the individual is aware of what they are doing but cannot stop. However, thought aware of the problem, many nail biters have no wish to stop.

While stress may be one reason why people bite, there is no solid research into this behavior and therefore, no identified reasons why it happens. There is no clear evidence that nail biting is harmful either mentally or physically. Nevertheless, there are good reasons to stop. For example, fingers and hands can look unattractive as a result of damage finger nails that look shredded and torn. Also, putting hands to the mouth is unsanitary and increases the risk of introducing viruses into the system. That is one way germs, such as the flu, are spread from one person to the next.

There are a variety of strategies that people can use to stop this habit. One is to wear a bracelet that jingles. Jingling helps the individual realize they are biting and, therefore, stop. Meditation, yoga and other deep relaxation techniques, relieve stress and tension so that the need to bite is reduced. Another technique is to keep the hands busy by hold a pen, knitting or any other behavior that competes with nail biting. In other words, it's impossible to bite if the hands are doing other things. Some people have suggested keeping nails short and getting a manicure as a way of preventing one from putting hand to mouth. Being aware of good hygiene as a way to prevent colds and flu might also help. Finally, using post-its helps remind one to not bite.

If this becomes a problem that interferes with social and work functioning it could be a symptom of a deeper problem that calls for psychotherapy. While nail biting is considered harmless for most people there are cases where this is not true. If you are uncertain about your nail biting behavior, a consultation with mental health practitioner is a good idea.

Do you have children who bite or do you continue to do so? Tell us about it. You comments are always welcome.

Allan N. Schwartz, PhD



Allan Schwartz, LCSW, Ph.D.

Readers who live in the Boulder, Colorado metro area, or in Southwest Florida may contact Dr. Schwartz for face-to-face consultation. He is also available for psychotherapy through Skype video for those who are not in Florida or Colorado. He can be reached via email at for details.

Reader Comments
Discuss this issue below or in our forums.

Big Time Nail Biter - Peter - Sep 12th 2014

I am a professional family man and severe onychophagist over 40 who learned to live with the habit out of necessity.  No one else in my immediate family bit their nails but for reasons unknown I began as a toddler biting my fingernails and toenails extremely short.   My parents were  concerned if not alarmed  but were advised by my pediatrician and other child health practitioners that I would likely outgrow it.    I was an active, healthy kid who loved sports in a  normal-functioning household.  I had growing pains and was rebellious as a teen-ager but was a generally happy kid. . .nonetheless I bit my nails constantly, which resulted in occasional  finger infections and ingrown toenails. . . and nagging lectures from elders.  

I never outgrew or  control the urge to pick at and bite my nails.  If I tried to stop, I was respressed and self-conscious. . .but felt happy and productive when spontaneously free to bite my nails.    I sought counseling as a young man and was advised not to obssess over it and concentrate on being happy. Today I still have extremely short nubby fingernails and often bite them in public though I'm aware it offends some people.

I do not believe there is any universal solution to the primitive nail-biting conundrum or any practical solution to my hard-core habit.   It's obvious I am a seriously-committed  onychopagist who does not fit most norms.  Most of the nail biters I knew as children either outgrew or stopped the habit without much effort.  I did know a girl in college who was hard-core like me and had another hard-core school buddy who became a urologist. . .and ironically still bites his nails very short.    


Follow us on Twitter!

Find us on Facebook!

This website is certified by Health On the Net Foundation. Click to verify.This site complies with the HONcode standard for trustworthy health information:
verify here.

Powered by CenterSite.Net